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Sawerigading in Luwuq, Sulawesi and Beyond: Local and Regional Cultural Identity and Social Transformation in Epic Memory (bagian 2)

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, 11:30 WIB Last Updated 2023-06-13T03:11:58Z
ARUNGSEJARAH.COM - Sawerigading in Luwuq, Sulawesi and Beyond: Local and Regional Cultural Identity and Social Transformation in Epic Memory (bagian 2).,Sawerigading in Luwuq, Sulawesi and Beyond: Local and Regional Cultural Identity and Social Transformation in Epic Memory (bagian 2), Prof. Dr. Kurt Tauchmann, Department of Cultural Anthropology, University of Köln (Cologne)/Germany dalam Seminar Internasional Sawerigading di Masamba, 10 -14 Desember 2003, Das Institut für Ethnologie trauert um Prof. Dr. Kurt Tauchmann, idwar anwar, seminar internasional la galigo, sawerigading
Prof. Dr. Kurt Tauchmann

ARUNGSEJARAH.COM - Sawerigading in Luwuq, Sulawesi and Beyond: Local and Regional Cultural Identity and Social Transformation in Epic Memory (bagian 2).


[1] Still remembered in the so called kulao ( water serpent or Naga ) which is also part of the royal insignia of the early ruler of Goa and visible through the Austronesean axis of  regions in Sulawesi dividing areas into  ri lao and ri aya. See also MLG: sambo = Boot, and its old malaic form sa:mvaw in den Kota Kapur und Karang Brahi insriptions of Sumatra, which derived from old Khmer and even is present in Madagascar. It represents the sacral beings ( Ambo ) of serpent descent, who are responsible for the fertility of the soil, especially remembered among Sama-Bajo and Bugis. They are connected to the institution of  Mambo / Mombo / Mumbu as a common heritage all over Southeast Asia  from a  pre-Hindu-Buddha period. See also the title Mumbu / Mombo for the early rulers  of  Peling  und Banggai islands in East Sulawesi and the title Ambo in the Wajo-Bugis area of  Senkang / South Sulawesi, who until now are very influential leaders in regional politics. Austronesian context is also present at the Horn of Africa through the Greek toponym Malao and at the Benadir coast Berau /  Berawa.

 [2] Rama / Sama is the legendary brother of  Barata. Through the  later destruction of  the Mon-Khmer polity of Lavo by the Sailendra’s of  Tai identity  and the  following Malay retaliations from Sumatra with support of the Bugis from Sulawesi one can recognise the closeness between Sama / Cham and Malaic identity. Cham traditions of refuge intermingle on the Malay Peninsula in the 15th century when their centre Vidjaya in  present Vietnam was destroyed by the Dai Viet. It follows an Exodus of the Cham elite to Malaka and Sulawesi, where the Shiva-Buddha traditions of the maritime Cham elite is visible under the Islamic rulers of Malaka and Goa. When Malays and Cham helped Goa / Makassar against the invading Portuguese they were recognised by their enemies as one and the same people.

[3] Manoq is the Malaic term for a ( fighting ) cock and used metaphorically for the class of warriors referred to in Hindu-Buddha categories under the guna ( habit ) “ red “ and associated with the arms.Their leader belongs to the royal class associated with the varna  “ white “ and as such among the potential rulers in the future.

[4] See the early rulers of Kedu Valley in Sumatra and their title Sang Ratu i Halu, the present ethnic marker Karow ( Batak ) and the toponyms like Barus or Maros, the Aru Bake in Sulawesi, the Rake in early Java stone and copper plate engravings, the Manjakas in Minahasa area, the title Lakina in Buton, the Mpanjaka’s in Madagascar, the title Lokesvara in Sumatra, and in East Africa the “Jake bin mangi-mangi ( Jafari bin Malik ) sifa yake lakini maana yake indopotea “ who contracted a marriage alliance with the female ruler of Shanga by the name Mwana Manubi and settled at Kiwayu ! See also the many toponyms Jalu ( MAL: for a bantam spur ) attesting to their presence along the East African coast. They are also connected to the generic etymon Bara  in Madagascar and Barata / Valata on the Benadir coast of East Africa through the Italic toponym Valata del d’arror ( Barata of Aru nobility ). Those  marriage alliances led to a dual organisation between a marine elite of ksatrya ( Bara rata ) and Wajoli as an indigenous  moiety under female rulers, attested by the transformation of  former Warde into Galla identity while Somal / Samal continues as marker for the maritime elite of “red kings”, who’s male children from wives of an indigenous matri lineage take control of power over local populations. In East Indonesia this maritime elite is called Kahane ( Gahani ) / Burane as against Baine.for indigenous wives.

[5] Brethren of the Chinese maybe points in the Spanish reports of the 16th century to their closed relations as contingent traders for Chinese commodities like porcelain and export ceramics, in Indonesia known as barang Maluku.

[6] The Buque’s  ( language: Ubuque ) are in the 16th century the main population in the hills and mountains of Northwest Malegazi / Madagascar also the name for the whole island by the Swahili of East Africa; See also the Wadabuli and Wadubuki in East Africa ( present Tansania ) and the connection to MAL: Boki = female ruler.

[7] See the Bara / Wala identity in Sulawesi and beyond.

[8] Same ri laki or Same ri lu’uk ?; See also the etymon Tolaki in East Sulawesi and the title lakina among Buton as well as the aristocratic title Lokesvara as an elite in polities of Sumatra which are vassals of early Shepo reign. Sema / Same / Samerlak traditions are a common heritage of Melayu, Java, through the popular character of Sema in TV shows, and Bugis-Bajo ( Wajo ) identities and their present traditions among the Bajo of Silamo / Kupang  and Mola / Muna about interrelations with the Semang of Malaysia. 

[9] We prefer the term Malaic for this context because it refers most probably to the hills and mountains of the interior of  Sulawesi .

[10] This lakina functionary bears the title Laode while from the Portuguese to the Dutch time he was called capitan sukanajo at land and for the watch on the sea had a marine pendant called capitan matanajo.

[11] See also the titles Andri and Dian  between East Africa, Madagascar and Kalimantan / Indonesia.

[12] See also the title Roro in Madagascar and Kalimantan / Indonesia which stems from marriage alliances between  a Bugis elite and Dayak women.

[13] In Malaic context the term rai / lai denotes the cosmic and social space above the human world and is connected to Barata as an incarnation of Shiva and gives rise to the etymon Malai, Warai, and Bara / Wara, the toponym Wareq and the Bare nation within Sulawesi. See for comparison the Tolai in Papua Niugini and the so called  “ island builders “ in the Salomon Islands who did not succeed to fight their entrance into the land behind the coast. 

[14] A still chaotic Earth was stabilised as human terrain by culture heroes who bring plants ( rice ) and introduce an advanced civilisation through economic and social transformation. Wajo-Bugis immigrants in East Kalimantan considered ( “ timbang “ ) the right balance between water and soil before founding local colonies.

[15] Marine tramp colonists appear as vaiswata, like the Bate selapang arriving at Sambung Jawa which later were known under the etymon Baje in Limbung, also called Tidung. The Dutch referred to them as Waiwadjes.

[16] Pota refers to the soil of hills and mountains in the interior and stands in opposition to Bonto referring to the coast. In chronological perspective Pota bangun evolves in the interior before Bonto bangun develops on the coast. 

[17] In the Negarakertagama of the 14th century appearing as Beten, claimed to be tributary to Mojopahit. For Ternate those legends about a dragon descent are also combined with an older Austroasiatic motif of  the bambu origin of mankind, whereby the first female human was found by a man after he cut open one of its branches.  Chamic influence in Sulawesi is visible in statues in Minahasa and Posso region which are comparable with samples rescued from the Mekong river through Dr. Morice, now in the Museum of natural history of Lyon.

[18] Propably  “ former ( old ) ” Bete.

[19] Bete in East Indonesia is the name for water yams ( colocasia antiquorum Schtt. ), eaten by humans in the past and sometimes given the alternative name ubi / sajawu ( dioscorea aculeata ); ubi is used also as a generic term for all roots of  that kind. In Madagascar this plant is known as traditional diet ngabé. The first syllable of Bété  follows all traditional institutions and objects of sacrosanct tradition like Angabé being a synonym of Fanoa identical with Wanua, but also the name for a functionary of spirit possession by a Naga.

[20] Kimaraha can be translated as the great kima ( a conch ) used to call companions, give signals on the sea and being the insignia of a marine leader on the coast.

[21] In Dutch language Laiwu’sche koest.

[22] Tomene’s also can be recogniced through the toponym Tomini Bay and associated with present Mandar identity. In  Banggay  they are remembered as Mian sea-sea ( people on the move ) and also known as Tonsea, one of  four descent groups who formed the Minahasa nation through marriage alliances with the female ruler of the indigenous Tonkimbut ( kimbut = vulva ).    

[23] See the Wara / Bara, the Bare nation but also the Balanginggi of the Sulu Archipelago / Philippines. Since this place is also remembered as Ussu, see for comparison the location Tizzi-Ussu on the migration route of the Anteimoro from present Algeria to Madagascar. The Anteimoro according to their oral traditions have been part of an early Arab Islamic context and have taken over some of its institutions. 

[24] See for comparison the earliest Chinese reports on the Austronesian communities in South China as Man Tan or Wu Tan ( “ black ” Tan ), whereby the syllable Tan is sometimes written in the vulgar form for egg. Those people are commonly called Tanka by the Chinese up to the present and now constitute the boat people who serve in floating recreation centres at Hongkong and Macao harbours; For comparison see the Bayao in South India and Ceylon and the Bayao as local leaders in the hinterland of  Mocambique / East Africa.

[25] From ajo / aco meaning favourite of common descent like Daeng Aco among the Kajang of Sindjai. See the meaning “ in laws ” and the social relation berajo among Minangkabau of Sumatra. Also present in the etymon Wajoli in the meaning of favoured marriage group among indigenous people for an immigrated Bara rata elite in Indonesia and East Africa. See also the legend about the skin decease of the Wajo princess who was expelled by her community and  had to be licked by a white buffalo before she could marry the prince of Bone. See the Vadio’s as mercadores volantes in early Portuguese reports from the 16th.century as contingent retailers for Cambay whole sellers who had their staple bases on islands in front of the East African coast. For further comparison see the Patcha’s in Ceylon, the Bajo’s in Hadramaut which were in the 20th. Century under Omani protection.    

[26] In Bugis language Ware or Wara ( to flutter / to float bearing resemblance to the mythological bird Barata, the Bare nation and the drifting toponym Wariq / Wareq ).

[27] Big ships like this arrived at Aden and their freight had to be transferred to smaller ships because of the shallow waters of the Red Sea. The Greeks called them Sangara’s, the Arabs Sambuq’s ( Ibn Batuta calls them Sumbuk’s / Sunbuk’s during the early 14.century ),and the Spanish  Zambuco’s con feitos. See also the toponym Tambuco on the East coast of Sulawesi.

[28] See boat parts according to local Mandar terminology.

[29] The etymon. Marégé denotes also Australian indigenous population and appears as well in the toponym Mergui-Archipelago of lower Birma / Myanmar and at three different places of the East African coast later called Marki by Arab travellers and Marca in early Portuguese an Spanish reports. In Madagascar it was the local name of the later Portuguese settlement Mazalagem.          

[30] Masikoro appear also at the east African coast and Madagascar where the Portuguese called them Machicores as against the Zafimanely / Zafimanili.

[31] Katanka denotes Austronesian or Chamic identity connected to a maritime elite of Cham-pa reignh. For Tanka see also footnote 24.

[32] This Bayo from Galesong is considered as the legendary founder of the kingdom of Goa dynasty through marriage with Tomanurung, a birdlike nymph of dragon descent from the mountain region in the Northeast of  the islands. She resembles his sister Bunga Manillu, and their offspring is characterised as anatomically incomplete ( crippled ) and later on disappears together with his mother. This could be a metaphorical hint to an prohibited sexual relationship. Among the Toraja oral tradition identifies the male partner of the female nymph as a To-ri- jene in the lowlands. It should be noted at this point however that the identity of Bayo as against Bajo / Baco reflect different etymological backgrounds; The Batachini ( Waywadjes) also known as Bajo in the settlement Masin / Amurang are called Sa Wero / Wareq among the Tontemboan in the Minahasa nation of Northeast Sulawesi which connects them with the drifting polity under this name and its ruler Sawerigading. This maritime elite was called bato china in early Portuguese records and are considered to have immigrated from Bajao / Bajan ) in Maluku to the coast of Sulawesi. Those bato cina are also reported at the West coast of Sulawesi near Galesong and in the northern region at Shayao, mentioned as an emporium in early Chinese records together with a second location under this name in the southern Philippines.        

[33] Manuqo’s lately appear also as raja’s in the periphery of East Indonesian islands preferably at channels for sea traffic between islands like in Labuan Bajo on the east coast of Flores and on the northern coast of Lembata, were Raja Gorong arrived from a small island resort near the island of Ceram and with the support of his Bajo’s  build his stronghold in a hidden harbour area near the main settlement of that island. During the early Islamic period in East Indonesia those raja’s transform into Manu Dashi’s who plough the seas and save for Muslim converts plunder coastal settlements.

[34] Malaic term for female rulers during the pre-Islamic period of Southeast Asia, reported for the East coast of Sulawesi. During the dynastic Islamic period in the eastern Archipelago the term has transformed to Sultana, mostly denoting a wife taken from the indigenous elite of the interior. 

[35] The generic term for dogs is aso, while buri means “ black ” and might be a metaphorical  hint to followers of Sawerigading who helped to drive back the former incursion of the sea up to Soppeng by working to dry up the swamps. In the area of  Senkang, Tu- ri- jene are reported to have founded the first settlement in Welado after drying up the brackish swamps. Both areas are now the main centres of wet rice production within the province of  Sulawesi Selatan.  

[36] Linga and voni / woni were symbols for the phallus and vulva as represented in stone but also wooden sculptures. For voni / woni see also the island toponym Wowoni as against Manui in Laiwu / Luwuq on the East coast of  Sulawesi.  

[37] “ Many ( plenty ) Karaeng’s  “.

[38] In Portuguese reports it appears as Durate do sandolo; See also toponyms like Torate / Torete on the East coast of Sulawesi corresponding with the etymon Tolaki and with the person Laki Padada, the brother in law of Bayo as the founder of Goa kingdom.

[39] The term Dai / dae could be translated as “ lord of the earth ( in connection to origin from the human world ) ” in opposition to the “ lord of the world ( in connection to astral origin ) ” and implies a title for people of common descent as against the royal class of  Rai “ ( Karaeng ). Among them one finds several Papu as leaders of the Bajo community, who for special services to the king of Goa were promoted to the rank of Karaeng when installed as shabandar ( harbour master ); See also the title Daeng Aco among the Kajang of  Sinjai and the wide spread personal name Aco among Bugis and Bajos alike.   

[40] Shudra class in Hindu-Buddha context includes traders as well as different specialised craftsmen and is associated with the colour category “ black ”.

[41] SAM-BAJ: Sa = island; AUS / AMA:  Dola / dulang = sea.

[42] Makasari or  Makaseri  from  the Malaic term seri, as in the toponym Tenasserim, which in Sanskrit is sari, and denotes the paradise on earth as affected by human patterning through colonisation and agriculture. In early Greek ethnic discourses it is connected to the Seri / Sali who are located  in the space across India.

Sebelumnya....  Sawerigading in Luwuq, Sulawesi and Beyond: Local and Regional Cultural Identity and Social Transformation in Epic Memory (bagian 1)

* Paper by Prof. Dr. Kurt Tauchmann, Department of Cultural Anthropology, University of Köln (Cologne)/Germany dalam Seminar Internasional Sawerigading di Masamba, 10 -14 Desember 2003.

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